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Moscow Kremlin.

The Moscow Kremlin is the largest active fortress in Europe. Its semi-regime status is explained by the fact that the whole complex is simultaneously a monument included in the UNESCO World Heritage List and the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation. On the territory of the Kremlin is the State Historical and Cultural Museum-Reserve "The Moscow Kremlin", which belongs to the architectural ensemble of the Cathedral Square (Uspensky, Archangel, Annunciation Cathedrals, Church of the Deposition, Patriarch's Chambers, Tsar Bell, Tsar Cannon), Ivan the Great Belltower And exhibition halls in the Assumption Belfry and One-Pillar Chamber of the Patriarch's Chambers.

HISTORY

The first Muscovites appeared in the Stone Age, not later than 3 millennium BC. Further, in the archaeological chronicle of the Kremlin, all the tribes that passed through our lands were noted - here found traces of the existence of the Fatyanovites, the deacons and, finally, Vyatichi, the direct predecessors of the proud tribe of Muscovites and Muscovites.

However, it is not yet clear at what point the settlement appeared on the hill - modern archaeologists believe that at the time of the Vyatichi there was a sanctuary, and people lived in the hamlets scattered along Neglinka, which had the common name of the Kuchkov field. In the middle of the 12th century, on the promontory at the confluence of Neglinnaya, a fortified courtyard of the Kiev prince Dolgoruky appeared to the Moskva River, and in 1156 on the place of the Palace of Congresses a jail appeared, in which the prince's squadron was located, which controlled the crossroads of trade roads near the river ford.

But this fence was not yet a city - the residential Posad around the fortress was formed only by the end of the century. Since 1264, this fortress became the residence of the Moscow princes, later - kings and church hierarchs. Since the time of Ivan Kalita (from 1326 onwards), it began to be built with stone temples. The first stone walls and towers of the fortress wall appeared in 1367, in 1450 - the first stone chambers belonging to the metropolitan, in 1470 his example was first followed by an ordinary citizen, the merchant Tarokan.

Modern view of the Kremlin began to recover after major reconstruction in the second half of the XV century - the construction was led by Italian architects with the most beautiful names: Aristotle Fioravanti, Antonio Dzslardi, Aloysio da Carrezano, Pietro Solari and other wonderful people. In general, the ensemble of the time had a strict, horizontal character, completely changed in the XVII century, when the tents of the fortress towers sprouted up to the sky after Ivan the Great.

The formation of the city continued gradually, the result was the division of the Kremlin into: the deepest sacred Sobornaya Square, the territory of the Sovereign Court adjacent to it from the west, the Patriarch's Courtyard, from the east - monasteries, from the south, southeast and north - the territory of rich boyar estates. Until the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Kremlin was the most complexly organized medieval city, each quarter of which contained temples, chambers, farmsteads and other wonderful things.

The current Kremlin is two-thirds of the area, squares and spaces - it's easy to guess that all these places were once densely and fascinatingly built up. The beginning of the "belittling of meanings" was put by Peter the Great, having built the Arsenal - a majestic, beautiful, but one and only and quite rectangular-predictable volume in place of a large complex compound quarter. From the Arsenal Bazhenov repelled, starting a complete, fortunately, failed restructuring of the Kremlin. It corresponds to the scale, rectangularity and uniformity of the motifs of the Grand Palace of the XIX century by the court architect Constantine Ton (he owns the project of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and many similar buildings throughout Russia), and the Palace of Congresses clumsily collapsed in the same logical direction.

The Kremlin ceased to be the residence of the Court since 1713 and again became the seat of the government in 1918. Despite the fact that the Bolsheviks mercilessly shot Kremlin relics from cannon in the days of the October Revolution, in the early years of Soviet power he was treated quite accurately. But immediately after Lenin's death, pogroms began - first, the ancient Miracles and Ascension Monasteries were demolished, then the eagles were shot down and the gate icons were knocked down. The Kremlin was closed for visits for a long time, but in the mid-1950s it opened again, and more freely than now - for the pedestrians the Spassky Gates were opened, the children slept in the sledge in the lower Tainitsky garden.

Now the orders have changed, there can be no question of sledges and other stupidities, seven years ago the last buffet for visitors was closed. Such great monuments as the Faceted Chamber, the Terem Palace, the most ancient church of the Nativity of the Virgin in the capital, remain closed to the public and are still limited for scientific research. Nevertheless, over the past 20 years, a number of stunning architectural and archaeological discoveries have been made on the Kremlin's territory, and there can be no doubt that in the future we will have to discover and learn much more.