The stations of the Moscow Metro - "underground palaces of Moscow", differ truly palace magnificence of vestibules and underground halls. Underground complexes are decorated with statues and reliefs, monumental and decorative compositions (paintings, mosaics, stained glass and paintings) of the country's leading artists. The system includes 12 lines (including the light metro line) with a total length of 298.8 km (in double-track calculation), on which 182 stations are located.
Mayakovskaya Station, Revolution Square with 76 bronze sculptures of MG Manizer, Kropotkinskaya, Komsomolskaya-ring with mosaics PD Korin, Novoslobodskaya and others belong to the most interesting monuments of architecture 1930-1950 Years. Some of them are officially protected by the state. New metro stations are distinguished by simplicity and strictness of design.
The first line was opened on May 15, 1935 and went from the Sokolniki station to the Park Kultury station, with a branch to Smolenskaya. The Metropolitan was originally named LM Kaganovich. Since 1955 the subway has been given the name of VI Lenin. The transport system itself since 1992 is mostly referred to as the Moscow Metro.
In the autumn of 1941, the metro was used as an air-raid shelter, some of the wagons were evacuated. Decree of the State Defense Committee of October 15, 1941 assumed the destruction of the metro equipment in the event of enemy troops "at the gates of Moscow".
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The design of the station is dedicated to the topic of the struggle of the Russian people for independence. The ceiling is decorated with eight mosaic panels from smalt and precious stones, six of which depict Alexander Nevsky, Dmitry Donskoy, Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky, Alexander Suvorov, Mikhail Kutuzov, Soviet soldiers and officers at the walls of the Reichstag. Their author is the artist PD Korin. Two more panels depicting JV Stalin ("Victory Parade" and "Handing the Guards Banner"), were replaced after the exposure of Stalin's personality cult in 1963. The new panels depict Lenin's speech before the Red Guards and Motherland against the backdrop of the Kremlin's Spassky Tower.
The ground vestibule of the station between the buildings of the Leningrad and Yaroslavl stations is decorated with bas-reliefs of GI Motovilov.
The architectural décor of the station is deeply symbolic, all three parts - the Central Hall, the Transitional Round Vozrozhdeniye forward with the giant column-capitol and the pavilion - have the idea of the sun and the glory of the victory and the divinity of its achievement. The central hall is reminiscent of an ancient Roman basilica hall. Pylons and columns of the Doric order are covered with light marble "kölga". Chandeliers resemble ancient Roman chandeliers-lamps, which resemble the sun from below.
The authors of the station's project, architects GA Zakharov and ZS Chernyshchov, were awarded the Stalin Prize.
The design of the station is dedicated to Soviet Ukraine and the theme of the reunification of Ukraine with Russia. On the vault above the pylons there are 24 frescoes depicting the workers of Soviet Ukraine. On the platform side, there are also frescoes, mostly with images of fantastic plants. The pylons are finished with light marble and are additionally decorated with a colored ceramic eaves. The station's end occupies a large mosaic panel depicting folk festivities at the celebration of the 300th anniversary of the reunification of Ukraine with Russia. The authors of paintings are a large creative team of artists: VA Konovalov, VN Arakelov, PM Mikhailov, LA Karnaukhov, TV Konovalova, AK Shiryaeva, KP Aksenov , IV Radoman, GI Opryshko.
Despite the fact that Mayakovskaya architecture belongs to the "Stalinist neoclassicism", the presence of some avant-garde details gives it an Art Deco style shade. The corner parts of the columns are decorated with the Urals stone "eagle" and marble limestone. The upper part of the travel walls is decorated with marble "Ufaley", the lower part - with diorite. The floor is lined with white marble and gray granite.
An important ornament of the station are mosaic panels from smalt (the author of sketches is AA Deineka, the theme is "The Day of the Soviet sky." The mosaics were collected in the studio of VA Frolov in Leningrad). At the opening of the station the panel was 35, one, which was closer to the old exit, was subsequently lost due to the construction of the hermetic seal.
The decoration of the station uses black Armenian marble "davalu", combined with white, gray and golden marble of other breeds. In the niches of each of the arches formed by the pylons of the station hall, 76 bronze figures depicting Soviet people are installed.
Sculptural sculptures are arranged in chronological order from the events of October 1917 to December 1937: workers and soldiers, peasants and sailors, a paratrooper, the girl "Voroshilovsky shooter", a border guard with a dog (4 sculptures, all dogs scuffed by students to the shine of a muzzle. Touches the dog's nose, this will bring him luck), a Stakhanovite and a young engineer, a hen-bird with a chicken and a rooster, as well as students, athletes and pioneers.
All the figures (except the pioneer figures) in order to fit into the limited vaulted volume of the arched passages are depicted either on the knee, or bent over, or sitting.